Health & Wellbeing

Microbiome Wellness Panels

PeploBio’s Microbiome Wellness Panels are novel qPCR multiplex assays that target a wide range of microbes. Indicative of each area of interest, our assays have been individually developed to incorporate the latest research from peer-reviewed journals.Results are ready in a short turnaround time, within 1-2 days from sample arrival, and are ‘ready to use’ with no need for further data processing or bioinformatics.  Tips on your improving your gut health are provided in the form of a Personalised Test Indicators Report as well as absolute and relative microbe quantification values.In addition to our established panels, PeploBio’s in-house expertise in assay development allows bespoke solutions to be offered, tailored to your requirement. Contact us for a discussion about custom made solutions.

Gut Microbiome

The Gut Microbiome is a diverse composition of microbial species found in the intestinal tract.  It has been established that the gut microbiome is interacting with its host via the gut-brain axis through interactions with immune cells, enteroendocrine cells and through the production of microbe-derived metabolites1.  As a key regulator within the gut-brain axis, the microbiome composition is thought to regulate cognitive function through the production of neurotransmitters and their precursors, essential proteins and metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) and through modulating the immune signalling and cytokine production 2–4. This influences the hosts response and behaviour to stimuli.  Scientific peer-reviewed correlation studies have implicated the gut microbiome in metabolic and inflammatory diseases including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, anxiety, depression, metabolism and appetite, type 2 diabetes and immunity5–10 .  However, the gut microbiome is a dynamic entity and the composition can be altered using probiotics, diet, or supplementation 11–13.  PeploBio offer proprietary solutions to analyse key bacterium involved in different pathologies and wellness.

Mental Health

A growing body of research has demonstrated that biochemical signalling through the gut-brain axis is thought to influence cognitive functioning and mood1,14. Preclinical models have shown that  disturbances in the gut microbiota has led to displaying of anxiety and depressive-like behaviours and these are normalised after probiotic administration15,16.  Clinical studies have shown a difference in composition of the gut microbiome in of those suffering with either anxiety or depression, in comparison to healthy controls17,18. A number of bacterial taxa, for each condition, have been identified which may characterise the conditions and inform future diagnosis and treatment7.  With this knowledge PeploBio have developed a mental health microbiome wellness panel to target key bacteria associated with anxiety or depression.


Normal eating behaviours are tightly regulated through several mechanisms involving the central nervous system and the gut.  These systems are influenced by other signalling molecules such as gut peptides, hormones and neuronal signalling.  The gut microbiome can influence this by producing SCFAs which stimulate hormone secretion (GLP1 & peptide YY) and decrease secretion of ghrelin19–21.  Ghrelin is a gastric hormone important in promoting hunger and craving responses22. It is thought that disruption of microbe-derived SCFA, and secondary bile acid metabolism, can promote insulin resistance and an increase in sensations of hunger23,24.  Pre-clinical studies have also demonstrated that the presence of certain microbes can negatively alter host preference for food25.

Type 2 Diabetes

Is a chronic metabolic disorder characterised by a low level of insulin, its receptors and/or insulin resistance.  It has been reported that people with Type 2 Diabetes have differential gut microbiota in comparison to healthy controls26,27.  It is thought that changes in the gut microbiome composition increase circulating LPS, pro-inflammatory cytokines and endotoxic compounds derived from the gut microbiome which lead to disruption in lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis 28,29.


The gut microbiome has been shown to have many positive influences on health.  This is achieved by preventing invasion of pathogenic species and through the production of metabolites which strengthen the mucosal barrier, preventing leaky gut and supporting the integrity of the blood brain barrier30–33. Microbiome metabolites such as SCFAs are thought to modulate immune activation and have anti-inflammatory properties34.


Turn Around Time

1-2 days
*From sample arrival at the laboratory

Microbiome test report

1. Personalised Test Indicators Report with tips on improving your gut health
2. Absolute and relative quantification values of microbes
No further data processing required

Contents & Storage

Each test kit contains:

Specimen collection container
95kPa specimen transport bag
Return address labelled UN3373 mailing bag
Sample collection instructions


How will the microbiome test results be displayed?

PeploBio’s novel microbiome tests provide raw quantification data of individual microbes, as well as interpreted results in the form of a Personalised Test Indicators Report- no further data processing required.  The report uses sliding scales to highlight low/moderate/high risk to turn complex lab results into meaningful insights and tips on improving your gut health.  The presentation of the results report can be tailored to your requirements.

How long does it take for me to get my result?

We guarantee a 1-2 day turnaround from when your sample is received in our laboratory.

How do I you know that my test result is accurate?

Our laboratory is an ISO 15189 accredited clinical laboratory. We adhere to strict internal quality assurance measures and are committed to providing a high-quality service, to consistently deliver clinically valid results.

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2. Bercik P, Verdu EF, Foster JA, Macri J, Potter M, Huang X, et al. Chronic Gastrointestinal Inflammation Induces Anxiety-Like Behavior and Alters Central Nervous System Biochemistry in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2010 Dec 1;139(6):2102-2112.e1.

3. O’Sullivan E, Barrett E, Grenham S, Fitzgerald P, Stanton C, Ross R, et al. BDNF expression in the hippocampus of maternally separated rats: does Bifidobacterium breve 6330 alter BDNF levels? Benef Microbes. 2011 Sep;2(3):199–207.

4. Parada Venegas D, De la Fuente MK, Landskron G, González MJ, Quera R, Dijkstra G, et al. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs)-Mediated Gut Epithelial and Immune Regulation and Its Relevance for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Front Immunol [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2022 Apr 28];10. Available from:

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7. Simpson CA, Diaz-Arteche C, Eliby D, Schwartz OS, Simmons JG, Cowan CSM. The gut microbiota in anxiety and depression – A systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2021 Feb 1;83:101943.

8. Gupta A, Osadchiy V, Mayer EA. Brain–gut–microbiome interactions in obesity and food addiction. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Nov;17(11):655–72.

9. Ballan R, Saad SMI. Characteristics of the Gut Microbiota and Potential Effects of Probiotic Supplements in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Foods. 2021 Oct 21;10(11):2528.

10. Gomaa EZ. Human gut microbiota/microbiome in health and diseases: a review. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2020 Dec 1;113(12):2019–40.

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12. Eswaran S, Chey WD, Jackson K, Pillai S, Chey SW, Han-Markey T. A Diet Low in Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, and Monosaccharides and Polyols Improves Quality of Life and Reduces Activity Impairment in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Diarrhea. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Dec 1;15(12):1890-1899.e3.

13. Farhangi MA, Javid AZ, Sarmadi B, Karimi P, Dehghan P. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of resistant dextrin, as functional food, in women with type 2 diabetes: Targeting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system. Clin Nutr Edinb Scotl. 2018 Aug;37(4):1216–23.

14. Peirce JM, Alviña K. The role of inflammation and the gut microbiome in depression and anxiety. J Neurosci Res. 2019;97(10):1223–41.

15. Crumeyrolle-Arias M, Jaglin M, Bruneau A, Vancassel S, Cardona A, Daugé V, et al. Absence of the gut microbiota enhances anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine response to acute stress in rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 Apr 1;42:207–17.

16. Bravo JA, Forsythe P, Chew MV, Escaravage E, Savignac HM, Dinan TG, et al. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 20;108(38):16050–5.

17. Huang TT, Lai JB, Du YL, Xu Y, Ruan LM, Hu SH. Current Understanding of Gut Microbiota in Mood Disorders: An Update of Human Studies. Front Genet. 2019 Feb 19;10:98.

18.  Sanada K, Nakajima S, Kurokawa S, Barceló-Soler A, Ikuse D, Hirata A, et al. Gut microbiota and major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2020 Apr 1;266:1–13.

19. Tolhurst G, Heffron H, Lam YS, Parker HE, Habib AM, Diakogiannaki E, et al. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Stimulate Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secretion via the G-Protein–Coupled Receptor FFAR2. Diabetes. 2012 Feb;61(2):364–71.

20. Cani PD, Lecourt E, Dewulf EM, Sohet FM, Pachikian BD, Naslain D, et al. Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov 1;90(5):1236–43.

21. Parnell JA, Reimer RA. Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;89(6):1751–9.

22. Nakazato M, Murakami N, Date Y, Kojima M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K, et al. A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding. Nature. 2001 Jan;409(6817):194–8.

23. Jiao N, Baker SS, Nugent CA, Tsompana M, Cai L, Wang Y, et al. Gut microbiome may contribute to insulin resistance and systemic inflammation in obese rodents: a meta-analysis. Physiol Genomics. 2018 Apr;50(4):244–54.

24. Pathak P, Xie C, Nichols RG, Ferrell JM, Boehme S, Krausz KW, et al. Intestine farnesoid X receptor agonist and the gut microbiota activate G-protein bile acid receptor-1 signaling to improve metabolism. Hepatol Baltim Md. 2018 Oct;68(4):1574–88.

25. Leitão-Gonçalves R, Carvalho-Santos Z, Francisco AP, Fioreze GT, Anjos M, Baltazar C, et al. Commensal bacteria and essential amino acids control food choice behavior and reproduction. PLoS Biol. 2017 Apr 25;15(4):e2000862.

26. Larsen N, Vogensen FK, van den Berg FWJ, Nielsen DS, Andreasen AS, Pedersen BK, et al. Gut Microbiota in Human Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Differs from Non-Diabetic Adults. PLoS ONE. 2010 Feb 5;5(2):e9085.

27. Qin J, Li Y, Cai Z, Li S, Zhu J, Zhang F, et al. A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2012 Oct;490(7418):55–60.

28. Harte AL, Varma MC, Tripathi G, McGee KC, Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, et al. High Fat Intake Leads to Acute Postprandial Exposure to Circulating Endotoxin in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects. Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb;35(2):375–82.

29.  Zhao L, Zhang F, Ding X, Wu G, Lam YY, Wang X, et al. Gut bacteria selectively promoted by dietary fibers alleviate type 2 diabetes. Science. 2018 Mar 9;359(6380):1151–6.

30. Karczewski J, Troost FJ, Konings I, Dekker J, Kleerebezem M, Brummer RJM, et al. Regulation of human epithelial tight junction proteins by Lactobacillus plantarum in vivo and protective effects on the epithelial barrier. Am J Physiol-Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010 Jun;298(6):G851–9.

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32. Usuda H, Okamoto T, Wada K. Leaky Gut: Effect of Dietary Fiber and Fats on Microbiome and Intestinal Barrier. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jul 16;22(14):7613.

33. Logsdon AF, Erickson MA, Rhea EM, Salameh TS, Banks WA. Gut reactions: How the blood–brain barrier connects the microbiome and the brain. Exp Biol Med. 2018 Jan;243(2):159–65.

34. Morrison DJ, Preston T. Formation of short chain fatty acids by the gut microbiota and their impact on human metabolism. Gut Microbes. 2016 Mar 10;7(3):189–200.