Diagnostic Services

Full Respiratory PCR Panel

Bosphore

Product Overview

Fifteen tests in one to simultaneously detect SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A/B and RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus) A/B, Enteroviruses, Human Metapneumovirus, Adenoviruses, Parainfluenza 1/2/3/4, Human Rhinoviruses, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila. PeploBio’s Full Respiratory PCR Panel tests all fifteen respiratory diseases using multiplexing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology.

Every result issued is analysed and reported by a HCPC registered Biomedical Scientist.

SARS-CoV-2

Is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes COVID-19 with symptoms including coughing, loss of taste or small, fever, headaches and can lead to respiratory distress 1,2.  SARS-CoV-2 viral particles use spike protein to bind to its human cell surface receptor, ACE2, and enter the cell with subsequent fusion with cell membrane 3.   The virus particle is uncoated, releasing the genomic RNA into the host cell.  The viral genomic RNA uses the host’s ‘machinery’, to produce more viral particles which are secreted from the infected cell 4.  As of the beginning of April 2022, over 21,400,000 people have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and over 187,000 have died in the UK alone with the Omicron BA.2 variant the most dominant in the UK accounting for over 93% of cases in England5-7.

RSV A/B

Are filamentous enveloped viruses containing negative-sense, single-stranded RNA.  Infections clinically manifest across a range of symptoms from mild upper respiratory tract illness symptoms including cough, fever, sore throat and headaches, to potentially life-threatening lower respiratory tract involvement8.  Although, RSV A/B induces mild symptoms in much of the population, RSV A/B can induce serious and occasionally fatal conditions in children aged under 5.  From 33.8 million children who caught RSV worldwide, 10% of these were hospitalized, from which 1.8% died. RSV transmission can be reduced through regular testing, regular hand sanitization and social distancing 9.

Influenza A/B

Virus genomes consist of eight negative-sense, single stranded viral RNA segments. Due to the structure and the function of Influenza viral proteins, these virions can undergo antigenic drift and/or antigenic shift. This enables the virus to evade long-term adaptive immune response 10.  Symptoms include high fever, cough, headache and chronic fatigue and 50% of infections can be asymptotic 11.  Seasonal Influenza causes 4-50 million symptomatic cases in EU/EEA every year and 15,000 – 70,000 deaths in Europe 12. Seasonal epidemics occur between November and April in the Northern Hemisphere and June and October in the Southern Hemisphere 12.

Enteroviruses

A family of positive-sense single stranded RNA viruses which cause a large range of mild-serious manifestations particularly in children such as mild respiratory and gastrointestinal infections to meningitis 13. Enteroviruses are spread through the inhalation/consumption of infected aerosolized droplets and faecal-oral routes13.

Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV)

Is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA enveloped virus belonging to the Pneumoviridae family 14. hMPV is a common respiratory virus that causes acute lower respiratory tract infections which clinically manifests as bronchitis and coughing 14. The population most likely to suffer from severe symptoms include children, elderly and individuals who are immunocompromised.

Adenoviruses

Are double-stranded viruses surrounded by an icosahedral capsid. There are 49 serologically different adenoviruses that infect humans, of which are usually asymptomatic and self-limiting 15. Adenovirus is contracted through the inhalation of aerosolized droplets and exposure to infected tissue and blood 15. Adenovirus can affect multiple organ systems but usually manifest with cold and flu-like symptoms with usually only immunocompromised individuals requiring supportive measures.

Parainfluenza 1/2/3/4

Are negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. Parainfluenza viruses are categorised into 4 serotypes (1/2/3/4). Parainfluenzas 1 and 3 belong to the genus of Respirovirus and are one of the leading causes of lower respiratory tract infections 16. Parainfluenzas are commonly contracted through the inhalation of aerosolised respiratory droplets and through physical contact with contaminated surfaces followed by touching of eyes and mouth. Parainfluenza is a respiratory disease that primarily induce symptoms of the common cold, croup, Tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis and Pneumonia 16.

Human Rhinoviruses (HRV)

Are positive single-stranded RNA viruses with no envelope17. HRV is commonly known as the causative agent for the common-cold, clinically manifesting its symptoms as sneezing, sore throat, ‘runny nose’ and is the second most common virus to induce bronchiolitis. HRV replicates in the nasal and posterior nasopharynx mucosa and is usually spread through hand contact and fomites while rarely contracted through respiratory aerosols.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MPP)

Is a gram-negative bacterium which lacks a cell wall. MPP belongs to the Mollicutes class and is broadly separated in to 2 genetic subtypes. The most common symptoms of MPP are fever, cough and myalgias, however MPP is responsible for 10-40% of community-acquired pneumonia 18. MPP is a respiratory infection that is spread through respiratory droplets and can affect every organ system in humans 18. Children and young adults are most susceptible to the bacterial infection.

Legionella pneumophila

Is a gram-negative fastidious bacterium that is usually found in free-living amoeba in freshwater 19,20. Legionella pneumophila is contracted through accidental environmental exposure. Legionella pneumophila infections are primarily respiratory with two different illnesses resulting from the infection. Acute pneumonia is the most common resulting in symptoms including headache, confusion, muscle aches gastrointestinal disturbances, fever and cough. The second illness is Pontiac fever which resembles symptoms of an acute influenza infection.

Specifications

Infection

SARS-CoV-2
RSV A/B
Influenza A/B
Enteroviruses
Human Metapneumovirus
Adenoviruses
Parainfluenza 1/2/3/4
Human Rhinoviruses
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Legionella pneumophila

Limits of Detection (copies/ml)

100 c/ml SARS-CoV-2
504 c/ml RSV A
1176 c/ml RSV B
504 c/ml Influenza A
672 c/ml Influenza B
336 c/ml Enteroviruses
1008 c/ml Human Metapneumovirus
588 c/ml Adenoviruses
1680 c/ml Parainfluenza 1/2/3/4
2184 c/ml Human Rhinoviruses
25.2 c/ml Mycoplasma pneumoniae
336 c/ml Legionella pneumophila

Internal Control

RNase P

Turn Around Time

Same-day

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2.    World Health Organization. Coronavirus [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 13]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus

3.    Jackson CB, Farzan M, Chen B, Choe H. Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Jan;23(1):3–20.

4.     V’kovski P, Kratzel A, Steiner S, Stalder H, Thiel V. Coronavirus biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 Mar;19(3):155–70.

5.    UK Health Security Agency. Cases in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/cases

6.    UK Health Security Agency. Deaths in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/deaths

7.    UK Health Security Agency. COVID-19 variants identified in the UK [Internet]. GOV.UK. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/covid-19-variants-identified-in-the-uk

8.    Borchers AT, Chang C, Gershwin ME, Gershwin LJ. Respiratory Syncytial Virus—A Comprehensive Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013;45(3):331–79.

9.  Obando-Pacheco P, Justicia-Grande AJ, Rivero-Calle I, Rodríguez-Tenreiro C, Sly P, Ramilo O, et al. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasonality: A      Global Overview. J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 11;217(9):1356–64.

10. Bouvier NM, Palese P. THE BIOLOGY OF INFLUENZA VIRUSES. Vaccine. 2008 Sep 12;26(Suppl 4):D49–53.

11. Dharmapalan D. Influenza. Indian J Pediatr. 2020 Oct 1;87(10):828–32.

12. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Factsheet about seasonal influenza [Internet]. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/seasonal-influenza/facts/factsheet

13. De Crom SC, Rossen JW, Van Furth AM, Obihara CC. Enterovirus and parechovirus infection in children: a brief overview. European journal of pediatrics. 2016 Aug;175(8):1023-9.

14. Soto JA, Galvez N, Benavente FM, Pizarro-Ortega MS, Lay MK, Riedel C, Bueno SM, Gonzalez PA, Kalergis AM. Human metapneumovirus: mechanisms and molecular targets used by the virus to avoid the immune system. Frontiers in immunology. 2018 Oct 24;9:2466.

15. Usman N, Suarez M. Adenoviruses. InStatPearls [Internet] 2021 Jan 21. StatPearls Publishing.

16. Elboukari H, Ashraf M. Parainfluenza Virus. InStatPearls [Internet] 2021 Jul 19. StatPearls Publishing.

17. Bizot E, Bousquet A, Charpié M, Coquelin F, Lefevre S, Le Lorier J, Patin M, Sée P, Sarfati E, Walle S, Visseaux B. Rhinovirus: A Narrative Review on Its Genetic Characteristics, Pediatric Clinical Presentations, and Pathogenesis. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 2021 Mar 22;9:113.

18. Bajantri B, Venkatram S, Diaz-Fuentes G. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a potentially severe infection. Journal of clinical medicine research. 2018 Jul;10(7):535.

19. Wee BA, Alves J, Lindsay DS, Klatt AB, Sargison FA, Cameron RL, Pickering A, Gorzynski J, Corander J, Marttinen P, Opitz B. Population analysis of Legionella pneumophila reveals a basis for resistance to complement-mediated killing. Nature Communications. 2021 Dec 9;12(1):1-3.

20. Lei C, Zhou X, Ding S, Xu Y, Yang B, Guo W, Song M, Yang M, Jia Y, Luo H. Case Report: Community-Acquired Legionella gormanii Pneumonia in an Immunocompetent Patient Detected by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing. Frontiers in medicine. 2022;9.