Diagnostic Services

PeploPass

Three tests in one to simultaneously detect SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A/B and RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus) A/B.

SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A/B and RSV A/B

Are common respiratory viruses.  These seasonal respiratory pathogens are expected to be co-circulating, especially during the winter months and this increases the probability of co-infections 1.  Symptoms alone may not be sufficient to make any distinction between infections. The PeploPass is a multiplex assay that can qualitatively analyse nasopharyngeal samples and differentiate between infections through a process known as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).  During RT-PCR any viral RNA present within the sample is amplified using highly specific primer/probe sequences and thermal cycling, while the sample is continuously monitored by software-guided LEDs to quantify the abundance of the target genes.  Data suggests co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with influenza viruses are significantly associated with increased mortality 1,2.  In addition, patients with co-infections may respond differently to immunomodulatory and antiviral therapy which strengthens the necessity of being able to distinguish between infections1.

SARS-CoV-2

Is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes COVID-19 with symptoms including coughing, loss of taste or small, fever, headaches and can lead to respiratory distress 2,3.  SARS-CoV-2 viral particles use spike protein to bind to its human cell surface receptor, ACE2, and gain entry into the cell with subsequent fusion with cell membrane4.   The virus particle is uncoated, releasing the genomic RNA into the host cell.  The viral genomic RNA uses the host’s ‘machinery’, to produce more viral particles which are secreted from the infected cell 5.  As of the beginning of April 2022, over 21,400,000 people have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and over 187,000 have died in the UK alone with the Omicron BA.2 variant the most dominant in the UK accounting for over 93% of cases in England 6–8.

Influenza A/B

Virus genomes consist of eight negative-sense, single stranded viral RNA segments. Due to the structure and the function of Influenza viral proteins, these virions can undergo antigenic drift and antigenic shift. This enables the virus to evade long-term adaptive immune response 9.  Symptoms include high fever, cough, headache and chronic fatigue and 50% of infections can be asymptotic 10.  Seasonal Influenza causes 4-50 million symptomatic cases in EU/EEA every year and 15,000 – 70,000 deaths in Europe 11. Seasonal epidemics occur between November and April in the Northern Hemisphere and June and October in the Southern Hemisphere 11.

RSV A/B

Are filamentous enveloped viruses containing negative-sense, single-stranded RNA.  Infections clinically manifest across a range of symptoms from mild upper respiratory tract illness symptoms including cough, fever, sort throat and headaches, to potentially life-threatening lower respiratory tract involvement 12.  Although, RSV A/B induces mild symptoms in the majority of the population, RSV A/B can induce serious and occasionally fatal conditions in children aged under 5.  From 33.8 million children who caught RSV worldwide, 10% of these were hospitalized, from which 1.8% died. RSV transmission can be reduced through regular testing, regular hand sanitization and social distancing 13

FAQ

Why should I buy a PeploPass test rather than individual Screenings?

The PeploPass is a cost effective and fast way to simultaneously differentiate between three virus targets and is substantially cheaper than buying each test separately.

How long does it take for me to get my result?

We guarantee a same day turnaround from when your sample is received in our laboratory.

How do I you know that my test result is accurate?

Our laboratory is an ISO 15189 accredited clinical laboratory. We adhere to strict internal quality assurance measures and are committed to providing a high-quality service, to consistently deliver clinically valid results.

1. Swets MC, Russell CD, Harrison EM, Docherty AB, Lone N, Girvan M, et al. SARS-CoV-2 co-infection with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, or adenoviruses. The Lancet [Internet]. 2022 Mar 25 [cited 2022 Apr 13];0(0). Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(22)00383-X/fulltext

2.  Stowe J, Tessier E, Zhao H, Guy R, Muller-Pebody B, Zambon M, et al. Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, and the impact of coinfection on disease severity: a test-negative design. Int J Epidemiol. 2021 May 3;50(4):1124–33.

3.  World Health Organization. Coronavirus [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 13]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus

4. Jackson CB, Farzan M, Chen B, Choe H. Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Jan;23(1):3–20.

5. V’kovski P, Kratzel A, Steiner S, Stalder H, Thiel V. Coronavirus biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 Mar;19(3):155–70.

6.  UK Health Security Agency. Cases in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/cases

7. UK Health Security Agency. Deaths in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/deaths

8. UK Health Security Agency. COVID-19 variants identified in the UK [Internet]. GOV.UK. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/covid-19-variants-identified-in-the-uk

9. Bouvier NM, Palese P. THE BIOLOGY OF INFLUENZA VIRUSES. Vaccine. 2008 Sep 12;26(Suppl 4):D49–53.

10. Dharmapalan D. Influenza. Indian J Pediatr. 2020 Oct 1;87(10):828–32.

11. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Factsheet about seasonal influenza [Internet]. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/seasonal-influenza/facts/factsheet

12. Borchers AT, Chang C, Gershwin ME, Gershwin LJ. Respiratory Syncytial Virus—A Comprehensive Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013;45(3):331–79.

13. Obando-Pacheco P, Justicia-Grande AJ, Rivero-Calle I, Rodríguez-Tenreiro C, Sly P, Ramilo O, et al. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasonality: A Global Overview. J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 11;217(9):1356–64.