PeploPass

Product Overview

Three tests in one to simultaneously detect SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A/B and RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus) A/B.

Catalogue No.
P12031
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A/B and RSV A/B are common respiratory viruses.  These seasonal respiratory pathogens are expected to be co-circulating, especially during the winter months and this increases the probability of co-infections 1.  Symptoms alone may not be sufficient to make any distinction between infections. The PeploPass is a multiplex assay that can qualitatively analyse nasopharyngeal samples and differentiate between infections through a process known as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).  During RT-PCR any viral RNA present within the sample is amplified using highly specific primer/probe sequences and thermal cycling, while the sample is continuously monitored by software-guided LEDs to quantify the abundance of the target genes.  Data suggests co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with influenza viruses are significantly associated with increased mortality 1,2.  In addition, patients with co-infections may respond differently to immunomodulatory and antiviral therapy which strengthens the necessity of being able to distinguish between infections1.

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes COVID-19 with symptoms including coughing, loss of taste or small, fever, headaches and can lead to respiratory distress 2,3.  SARS-CoV-2 viral particles use spike protein to bind to its human cell surface receptor, ACE2, and gain entry into the cell with subsequent fusion with cell membrane4.   The virus particle is uncoated, releasing the genomic RNA into the host cell.  The viral genomic RNA uses the host’s ‘machinery’, to produce more viral particles which are secreted from the infected cell 5.  As of the beginning of April 2022, over 21,400,000 people have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and over 187,000 have died in the UK alone with the Omicron BA.2 variant the most dominant in the UK accounting for over 93% of cases in England 6–8.

Influenza A/B virus genomes consist of eight negative-sense, single stranded viral RNA segments. Due to the structure and the function of Influenza viral proteins, these virions can undergo antigenic drift and antigenic shift. This enables the virus to evade long-term adaptive immune response 9.  Symptoms include high fever, cough, headache and chronic fatigue and 50% of infections can be asymptotic 10.  Seasonal Influenza causes 4-50 million symptomatic cases in EU/EEA every year and 15,000 – 70,000 deaths in Europe 11. Seasonal epidemics occur between November and April in the Northern Hemisphere and June and October in the Southern Hemisphere 11.

RSV A/B are filamentous enveloped viruses containing negative-sense, single-stranded RNA.  Infections clinically manifest across a range of symptoms from mild upper respiratory tract illness symptoms including cough, fever, sort throat and headaches, to potentially life-threatening lower respiratory tract involvement 12.  Although, RSV A/B induces mild symptoms in the majority of the population, RSV A/B can induce serious and occasionally fatal conditions in children aged under 5.  From 33.8 million children who caught RSV worldwide, 10% of these were hospitalized, from which 1.8% died. RSV transmission can be reduced through regular testing, regular hand sanitization and social distancing 13

FAQ

Why should I buy a PeploPass test rather than individual Screenings?
The PeploPass is a cost effective and fast way to simultaneously differentiate between three virus targets and is substantially cheaper than buying each test separately.
How long does it take for me to get my result?
We guarantee a same day turnaround from when your sample is received in our laboratory.
How do I you know that my test result is accurate?
Our laboratory is an ISO 15189 accredited clinical laboratory. We adhere to strict internal quality assurance measures and are committed to providing a high-quality service, to consistently deliver clinically valid results.

1. Swets MC, Russell CD, Harrison EM, Docherty AB, Lone N, Girvan M, et al. SARS-CoV-2 co-infection with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, or adenoviruses. The Lancet [Internet]. 2022 Mar 25 [cited 2022 Apr 13];0(0). Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(22)00383-X/fulltext

2.  Stowe J, Tessier E, Zhao H, Guy R, Muller-Pebody B, Zambon M, et al. Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, and the impact of coinfection on disease severity: a test-negative design. Int J Epidemiol. 2021 May 3;50(4):1124–33.

3.  World Health Organization. Coronavirus [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 13]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus

4. Jackson CB, Farzan M, Chen B, Choe H. Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Jan;23(1):3–20.

5. V’kovski P, Kratzel A, Steiner S, Stalder H, Thiel V. Coronavirus biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 Mar;19(3):155–70.

6.  UK Health Security Agency. Cases in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/cases

7. UK Health Security Agency. Deaths in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/deaths

8. UK Health Security Agency. COVID-19 variants identified in the UK [Internet]. GOV.UK. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/covid-19-variants-identified-in-the-uk

9. Bouvier NM, Palese P. THE BIOLOGY OF INFLUENZA VIRUSES. Vaccine. 2008 Sep 12;26(Suppl 4):D49–53.

10. Dharmapalan D. Influenza. Indian J Pediatr. 2020 Oct 1;87(10):828–32.

11. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Factsheet about seasonal influenza [Internet]. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/seasonal-influenza/facts/factsheet

12. Borchers AT, Chang C, Gershwin ME, Gershwin LJ. Respiratory Syncytial Virus—A Comprehensive Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013;45(3):331–79.

13. Obando-Pacheco P, Justicia-Grande AJ, Rivero-Calle I, Rodríguez-Tenreiro C, Sly P, Ramilo O, et al. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasonality: A Global Overview. J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 11;217(9):1356–64.

SARS-CoV-2 PCR Test

Product Overview

Our high-sensitivity SARS-CoV-2 assays amplify viral RNA through the use of highly specific primer/probe sequences and thermal cycles, while the sample is continuously monitored by software-guided LEDs to quantify the abundance of the target genes.

Catalogue No.
P11031
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes COVID-19 with symptoms including coughing, loss of taste or small, fever, headaches and can lead to respiratory distress 1,2.  SARS-CoV-2 viral particles use spike protein to bind to its human cell surface receptor, ACE2, and gain entry into the cell with subsequent fusion with cell membrane 3.   The virus particle is uncoated, releasing the genomic RNA into the host cell.  The viral genomic RNA uses the host’s ‘machinery’, to produce more viral particles which are secreted from the infected cell 4.  As of the beginning of April 2022, over 21,400,000 people have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and over 187,000 have died in the UK alone with the Omicron BA.2 variant the most dominant in the UK accounting for over 93% of cases in England 5-7.

The SARS-CoV-2 PCR test targets the N, S and ORF1ab SARS-CoV-2 genes. The S gene, which codes for the Spike protein, gives the virus its ability to bind to human cells, and therefore its infectious nature while the N gene’s protein binds to and gives structure to the viral RNA. The ORF1-ab genes each encode polyproteins that go on to form a viral replication and transcription complex4.

Specifications

Infection
SARS-CoV-2 (ORF1ab, N and S genes)
Internal control
MS2 phage control
Limit of Detection
250 GCE/ml
Turn Around Time
Same day
*From sample arrival at the laboratory
Contents & Storage
Each SARS-CoV-2 PCR test kit contains:

Nasopharyngeal swab, a VTM tube
95kPa specimen transport bag
Return address labelled UN3373 mailing bag
Sample collection instructions

FAQ

How long does it take for me to get my result?
We guarantee a same day turnaround from when your sample is received in our laboratory.
How do I you know that my test result is accurate?
Our laboratory is an ISO 15189 accredited clinical laboratory. We adhere to strict internal quality assurance measures and are committed to providing a high-quality service, to consistently deliver clinically valid results.

1.     Stowe J, Tessier E, Zhao H, Guy R, Muller-Pebody B, Zambon M, et al. Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, and the impact of coinfection on disease severity: a test-negative design. Int J Epidemiol. 2021 May 3;50(4):1124–33.

2.     World Health Organization. Coronavirus [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 13]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus

3.     Jackson CB, Farzan M, Chen B, Choe H. Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Jan;23(1):3–20.

4.     V’kovski P, Kratzel A, Steiner S, Stalder H, Thiel V. Coronavirus biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 Mar;19(3):155–70.

5.     UK Health Security Agency. Cases in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/cases

6.     UK Health Security Agency. Deaths in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/deaths

7.     UK Health Security Agency. COVID-19 variants identified in the UK [Internet]. GOV.UK. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/covid-19-variants-identified-in-the-uk

SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test (Self-Testing)

Product Overview

Rapid testing for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigens for general screening and Fit-to-Fly testing. Digital Validation Report issued within 4 hours of successful online activation.

Catalogue No.
P11011
No. of kits
1
Digital Validation Report
No
Availability
In stock
Catalogue No.
P11201
No. of kits
1
Digital Validation Report
Yes
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes COVID-19 with symptoms including coughing, loss of taste or small, fever, headaches and can lead to respiratory distress 1,2.  SARS-CoV-2 viral particles use spike protein to bind to its human cell surface receptor, ACE2, and enter the cell with subsequent fusion with cell membrane 3.   The virus particle is uncoated, releasing the genomic RNA into the host cell.  The viral genomic RNA uses the host’s ‘machinery’, to produce more viral particles which are secreted from the infected cell 4.  As of the beginning of April 2022, over 21,400,000 people have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and over 187,000 have died in the UK alone with the Omicron BA.2 variant the most dominant in the UK accounting for over 93% of cases in England5-7.

The Lateral Flow Device provides rapid SARS-CoV-2 detection utilising specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific to detect the nucleocapsid antigens. The samples are obtained through anterior nasal swabs which are combined with the extraction solution. Results are visually read at 15-30 minutes. A red line would appear at the Control (C) line if the test had worked. A red line at position T indicates SARS-CoV-2 presence.

Specifications

Infection
SARS-CoV-2 (Nucleocapsid antigens)
Limit of Detection
1.6x102 TCID50/mL
Clinical Performance characteristics
Relative Sensitivity 97.1% Relative Specificity 99.5%
Turn Around Time
Receive results within 15-30 minutes
Time for Validation Report
< 4 hours after online activation (9am-9pm, 7 days a week)
Contents & Storage
1 Test Cassette
1 Extraction Buffer Tube
1 Disposable Swab
1 Waste Bag
Package insert

Store kits between 2 – 30°C
Use kits before expiration date printed on sealed test kit.
The test must remain in the sealed pouch until use.

1.      Stowe J, Tessier E, Zhao H, Guy R, Muller-Pebody B, Zambon M, et al. Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, and the impact of coinfection on disease severity: a test-negative design. Int J Epidemiol. 2021 May 3;50(4):1124–33.  

2.     World Health Organization. Coronavirus [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 13]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus

3.     Jackson CB, Farzan M, Chen B, Choe H. Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Jan;23(1):3–20.  

4.      V’kovski P, Kratzel A, Steiner S, Stalder H, Thiel V. Coronavirus biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 Mar;19(3):155–70.  

5.     UK Health Security Agency. Cases in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/cases

6.     UK Health Security Agency. Deaths in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/deaths

7.     UK Health Security Agency. COVID-19 variants identified in the UK [Internet]. GOV.UK. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/covid-19-variants-identified-in-the-uk

Supervised SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test

Product Overview

Video supervised rapid testing for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigens for Fit-to-Fly testing. Booking link for easy customer scheduling with appointment availability 7-days a week. Digital Validation Report issued immediately following appointment.

Catalogue No.
P11311
No. of kits
1
Supervised Test
Yes
Digital Validation Report
Yes
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes COVID-19 with symptoms including coughing, loss of taste or small, fever, headaches and can lead to respiratory distress 1,2.  SARS-CoV-2 viral particles use spike protein to bind to its human cell surface receptor, ACE2, and enter the cell with subsequent fusion with cell membrane 3.   The virus particle is uncoated, releasing the genomic RNA into the host cell.  The viral genomic RNA uses the host’s ‘machinery’, to produce more viral particles which are secreted from the infected cell 4.  As of the beginning of April 2022, over 21,400,000 people have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and over 187,000 have died in the UK alone with the Omicron BA.2 variant the most dominant in the UK accounting for over 93% of cases in England5-7.

The Lateral Flow Device provides rapid SARS-CoV-2 detection utilising specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific to detect the nucleocapsid antigens. The samples are obtained through anterior nasal swabs which are combined with the extraction solution. Results are visually read at 15-30 minutes. A red line would appear at the Control (C) line if the test had worked. A red line at position T indicates SARS-CoV-2 presence.

Specifications

Infection
SARS-CoV-2 (Nucleocapsid antigens)
Limit of Detection
1.6x102 TCID50/mL
Clinical Performance characteristics
Relative Sensitivity 97.1% Relative Specificity 99.5%
Turn Around Time
Receive results within 15-30 minutes of appointment
Time for Validation Report
15-30 mins after online appointment (9am-9pm, 7 days a week)
Contents & Storage
1 Test Cassette
1 Extraction Buffer Tube
1 Disposable Swab
1 Waste Bag
Package insert

Store kits between 2 – 30°C
Use kits before expiration date printed on sealed test kit.
The test must remain in the sealed pouch until use.

1.      Stowe J, Tessier E, Zhao H, Guy R, Muller-Pebody B, Zambon M, et al. Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, and the impact of coinfection on disease severity: a test-negative design. Int J Epidemiol. 2021 May 3;50(4):1124–33.  

2.     World Health Organization. Coronavirus [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 13]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus

3.     Jackson CB, Farzan M, Chen B, Choe H. Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Jan;23(1):3–20.  

4.      V’kovski P, Kratzel A, Steiner S, Stalder H, Thiel V. Coronavirus biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 Mar;19(3):155–70.  

5.     UK Health Security Agency. Cases in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/cases

6.     UK Health Security Agency. Deaths in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/deaths

7.     UK Health Security Agency. COVID-19 variants identified in the UK [Internet]. GOV.UK. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/covid-19-variants-identified-in-the-uk

Full Respiratory PCR Panel

Bosphore

Product Overview

Fifteen tests in one to simultaneously detect SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A/B and RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus) A/B, Enteroviruses, Human Metapneumovirus, Adenoviruses, Parainfluenza 1/2/3/4, Human Rhinoviruses, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila. PeploBio’s Full Respiratory PCR Panel tests all fifteen respiratory diseases using multiplexing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology.

Every result issued is analysed and reported by a HCPC registered Biomedical Scientist.

Catalogue No.
P12010
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes COVID-19 with symptoms including coughing, loss of taste or small, fever, headaches and can lead to respiratory distress 1,2.  SARS-CoV-2 viral particles use spike protein to bind to its human cell surface receptor, ACE2, and enter the cell with subsequent fusion with cell membrane 3.   The virus particle is uncoated, releasing the genomic RNA into the host cell.  The viral genomic RNA uses the host’s ‘machinery’, to produce more viral particles which are secreted from the infected cell 4.  As of the beginning of April 2022, over 21,400,000 people have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and over 187,000 have died in the UK alone with the Omicron BA.2 variant the most dominant in the UK accounting for over 93% of cases in England5-7.

RSV A/B are filamentous enveloped viruses containing negative-sense, single-stranded RNA.  Infections clinically manifest across a range of symptoms from mild upper respiratory tract illness symptoms including cough, fever, sore throat and headaches, to potentially life-threatening lower respiratory tract involvement8.  Although, RSV A/B induces mild symptoms in much of the population, RSV A/B can induce serious and occasionally fatal conditions in children aged under 5.  From 33.8 million children who caught RSV worldwide, 10% of these were hospitalized, from which 1.8% died. RSV transmission can be reduced through regular testing, regular hand sanitization and social distancing 9.

Influenza A/B virus genomes consist of eight negative-sense, single stranded viral RNA segments. Due to the structure and the function of Influenza viral proteins, these virions can undergo antigenic drift and/or antigenic shift. This enables the virus to evade long-term adaptive immune response 10.  Symptoms include high fever, cough, headache and chronic fatigue and 50% of infections can be asymptotic 11.  Seasonal Influenza causes 4-50 million symptomatic cases in EU/EEA every year and 15,000 – 70,000 deaths in Europe 12. Seasonal epidemics occur between November and April in the Northern Hemisphere and June and October in the Southern Hemisphere 12.  

Enteroviruses a family of positive-sense single stranded RNA viruses which cause a large range of mild-serious manifestations particularly in children such as mild respiratory and gastrointestinal infections to meningitis 13. Enteroviruses are spread through the inhalation/consumption of infected aerosolized droplets and faecal-oral routes13.  

Human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA enveloped virus belonging to the Pneumoviridae family 14. hMPV is a common respiratory virus that causes acute lower respiratory tract infections which clinically manifests as bronchitis and coughing 14. The population most likely to suffer from severe symptoms include children, elderly and individuals who are immunocompromised.

Adenoviruses are double-stranded viruses surrounded by an icosahedral capsid. There are 49 serologically different adenoviruses that infect humans, of which are usually asymptomatic and self-limiting 15. Adenovirus is contracted through the inhalation of aerosolized droplets and exposure to infected tissue and blood 15. Adenovirus can affect multiple organ systems but usually manifest with cold and flu-like symptoms with usually only immunocompromised individuals requiring supportive measures.

Parainfluenza 1/2/3/4 are negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. Parainfluenza viruses are categorised into 4 serotypes (1/2/3/4). Parainfluenzas 1 and 3 belong to the genus of Respirovirus and are one of the leading causes of lower respiratory tract infections 16. Parainfluenzas are commonly contracted through the inhalation of aerosolised respiratory droplets and through physical contact with contaminated surfaces followed by touching of eyes and mouth. Parainfluenza is a respiratory disease that primarily induce symptoms of the common cold, croup, Tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis and Pneumonia 16.

Human Rhinoviruses (HRV) are positive single-stranded RNA viruses with no envelope17. HRV is commonly known as the causative agent for the common-cold, clinically manifesting its symptoms as sneezing, sore throat, ‘runny nose’ and is the second most common virus to induce bronchiolitis. HRV replicates in the nasal and posterior nasopharynx mucosa and is usually spread through hand contact and fomites while rarely contracted through respiratory aerosols.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MPP) is a gram-negative bacterium which lacks a cell wall. MPP belongs to the Mollicutes class and is broadly separated in to 2 genetic subtypes. The most common symptoms of MPP are fever, cough and myalgias, however MPP is responsible for 10-40% of community-acquired pneumonia 18. MPP is a respiratory infection that is spread through respiratory droplets and can affect every organ system in humans 18. Children and young adults are most susceptible to the bacterial infection.

Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative fastidious bacterium that is usually found in free-living amoeba in freshwater 19,20. Legionella pneumophila is contracted through accidental environmental exposure. Legionella pneumophila infections are primarily respiratory with two different illnesses resulting from the infection. Acute pneumonia is the most common resulting in symptoms including headache, confusion, muscle aches gastrointestinal disturbances, fever and cough. The second illness is Pontiac fever which resembles symptoms of an acute influenza infection.

Specifications

Infection
SARS-CoV-2
RSV A/B
Influenza A/B
Enteroviruses
Human Metapneumovirus
Adenoviruses
Parainfluenza 1/2/3/4
Human Rhinoviruses
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Legionella pneumophila
Limits of Detection (copies/ml)
100 c/ml SARS-CoV-2
504 c/ml RSV A
1176 c/ml RSV B
504 c/ml Influenza A
672 c/ml Influenza B
336 c/ml Enteroviruses
1008 c/ml Human Metapneumovirus
588 c/ml Adenoviruses
1680 c/ml Parainfluenza 1/2/3/4
2184 c/ml Human Rhinoviruses
25.2 c/ml Mycoplasma pneumoniae
336 c/ml Legionella pneumophila
Internal Control
RNase P
Turn Around Time
Same-day

1.     Stowe J, Tessier E, Zhao H, Guy R, Muller-Pebody B, Zambon M, et al. Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, and the impact of coinfection on disease severity: a test-negative design. Int J Epidemiol. 2021 May 3;50(4):1124–33.

2.    World Health Organization. Coronavirus [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 13]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus

3.    Jackson CB, Farzan M, Chen B, Choe H. Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Jan;23(1):3–20.

4.     V’kovski P, Kratzel A, Steiner S, Stalder H, Thiel V. Coronavirus biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 Mar;19(3):155–70.

5.    UK Health Security Agency. Cases in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/cases

6.    UK Health Security Agency. Deaths in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/deaths

7.    UK Health Security Agency. COVID-19 variants identified in the UK [Internet]. GOV.UK. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/covid-19-variants-identified-in-the-uk

8.    Borchers AT, Chang C, Gershwin ME, Gershwin LJ. Respiratory Syncytial Virus—A Comprehensive Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013;45(3):331–79.

9.  Obando-Pacheco P, Justicia-Grande AJ, Rivero-Calle I, Rodríguez-Tenreiro C, Sly P, Ramilo O, et al. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasonality: A      Global Overview. J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 11;217(9):1356–64.

10. Bouvier NM, Palese P. THE BIOLOGY OF INFLUENZA VIRUSES. Vaccine. 2008 Sep 12;26(Suppl 4):D49–53.

11. Dharmapalan D. Influenza. Indian J Pediatr. 2020 Oct 1;87(10):828–32.

12. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Factsheet about seasonal influenza [Internet]. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/seasonal-influenza/facts/factsheet

13. De Crom SC, Rossen JW, Van Furth AM, Obihara CC. Enterovirus and parechovirus infection in children: a brief overview. European journal of pediatrics. 2016 Aug;175(8):1023-9.

14. Soto JA, Galvez N, Benavente FM, Pizarro-Ortega MS, Lay MK, Riedel C, Bueno SM, Gonzalez PA, Kalergis AM. Human metapneumovirus: mechanisms and molecular targets used by the virus to avoid the immune system. Frontiers in immunology. 2018 Oct 24;9:2466.

15. Usman N, Suarez M. Adenoviruses. InStatPearls [Internet] 2021 Jan 21. StatPearls Publishing.

16. Elboukari H, Ashraf M. Parainfluenza Virus. InStatPearls [Internet] 2021 Jul 19. StatPearls Publishing.

17. Bizot E, Bousquet A, Charpié M, Coquelin F, Lefevre S, Le Lorier J, Patin M, Sée P, Sarfati E, Walle S, Visseaux B. Rhinovirus: A Narrative Review on Its Genetic Characteristics, Pediatric Clinical Presentations, and Pathogenesis. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 2021 Mar 22;9:113.

18. Bajantri B, Venkatram S, Diaz-Fuentes G. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a potentially severe infection. Journal of clinical medicine research. 2018 Jul;10(7):535.

19. Wee BA, Alves J, Lindsay DS, Klatt AB, Sargison FA, Cameron RL, Pickering A, Gorzynski J, Corander J, Marttinen P, Opitz B. Population analysis of Legionella pneumophila reveals a basis for resistance to complement-mediated killing. Nature Communications. 2021 Dec 9;12(1):1-3.

20. Lei C, Zhou X, Ding S, Xu Y, Yang B, Guo W, Song M, Yang M, Jia Y, Luo H. Case Report: Community-Acquired Legionella gormanii Pneumonia in an Immunocompetent Patient Detected by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing. Frontiers in medicine. 2022;9.

PeploPass

Product Overview

Three tests in one to simultaneously detect SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A/B and RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus) A/B.

Catalogue No.
P12031
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A/B and RSV A/B are common respiratory viruses.  These seasonal respiratory pathogens are expected to be co-circulating, especially during the winter months and this increases the probability of co-infections 1.  Symptoms alone may not be sufficient to make any distinction between infections. The PeploPass is a multiplex assay that can qualitatively analyse nasopharyngeal samples and differentiate between infections through a process known as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).  During RT-PCR any viral RNA present within the sample is amplified using highly specific primer/probe sequences and thermal cycling, while the sample is continuously monitored by software-guided LEDs to quantify the abundance of the target genes.  Data suggests co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 with influenza viruses are significantly associated with increased mortality 1,2.  In addition, patients with co-infections may respond differently to immunomodulatory and antiviral therapy which strengthens the necessity of being able to distinguish between infections1.

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes COVID-19 with symptoms including coughing, loss of taste or small, fever, headaches and can lead to respiratory distress 2,3.  SARS-CoV-2 viral particles use spike protein to bind to its human cell surface receptor, ACE2, and gain entry into the cell with subsequent fusion with cell membrane4.   The virus particle is uncoated, releasing the genomic RNA into the host cell.  The viral genomic RNA uses the host’s ‘machinery’, to produce more viral particles which are secreted from the infected cell 5.  As of the beginning of April 2022, over 21,400,000 people have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and over 187,000 have died in the UK alone with the Omicron BA.2 variant the most dominant in the UK accounting for over 93% of cases in England 6–8.

Influenza A/B virus genomes consist of eight negative-sense, single stranded viral RNA segments. Due to the structure and the function of Influenza viral proteins, these virions can undergo antigenic drift and antigenic shift. This enables the virus to evade long-term adaptive immune response 9.  Symptoms include high fever, cough, headache and chronic fatigue and 50% of infections can be asymptotic 10.  Seasonal Influenza causes 4-50 million symptomatic cases in EU/EEA every year and 15,000 – 70,000 deaths in Europe 11. Seasonal epidemics occur between November and April in the Northern Hemisphere and June and October in the Southern Hemisphere 11.

RSV A/B are filamentous enveloped viruses containing negative-sense, single-stranded RNA.  Infections clinically manifest across a range of symptoms from mild upper respiratory tract illness symptoms including cough, fever, sort throat and headaches, to potentially life-threatening lower respiratory tract involvement 12.  Although, RSV A/B induces mild symptoms in the majority of the population, RSV A/B can induce serious and occasionally fatal conditions in children aged under 5.  From 33.8 million children who caught RSV worldwide, 10% of these were hospitalized, from which 1.8% died. RSV transmission can be reduced through regular testing, regular hand sanitization and social distancing 13

FAQ

Why should I buy a PeploPass test rather than individual Screenings?
The PeploPass is a cost effective and fast way to simultaneously differentiate between three virus targets and is substantially cheaper than buying each test separately.
How long does it take for me to get my result?
We guarantee a same day turnaround from when your sample is received in our laboratory.
How do I you know that my test result is accurate?
Our laboratory is an ISO 15189 accredited clinical laboratory. We adhere to strict internal quality assurance measures and are committed to providing a high-quality service, to consistently deliver clinically valid results.

1. Swets MC, Russell CD, Harrison EM, Docherty AB, Lone N, Girvan M, et al. SARS-CoV-2 co-infection with influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, or adenoviruses. The Lancet [Internet]. 2022 Mar 25 [cited 2022 Apr 13];0(0). Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(22)00383-X/fulltext

2.  Stowe J, Tessier E, Zhao H, Guy R, Muller-Pebody B, Zambon M, et al. Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, and the impact of coinfection on disease severity: a test-negative design. Int J Epidemiol. 2021 May 3;50(4):1124–33.

3.  World Health Organization. Coronavirus [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 13]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus

4. Jackson CB, Farzan M, Chen B, Choe H. Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Jan;23(1):3–20.

5. V’kovski P, Kratzel A, Steiner S, Stalder H, Thiel V. Coronavirus biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 Mar;19(3):155–70.

6.  UK Health Security Agency. Cases in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/cases

7. UK Health Security Agency. Deaths in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/deaths

8. UK Health Security Agency. COVID-19 variants identified in the UK [Internet]. GOV.UK. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/covid-19-variants-identified-in-the-uk

9. Bouvier NM, Palese P. THE BIOLOGY OF INFLUENZA VIRUSES. Vaccine. 2008 Sep 12;26(Suppl 4):D49–53.

10. Dharmapalan D. Influenza. Indian J Pediatr. 2020 Oct 1;87(10):828–32.

11. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Factsheet about seasonal influenza [Internet]. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/seasonal-influenza/facts/factsheet

12. Borchers AT, Chang C, Gershwin ME, Gershwin LJ. Respiratory Syncytial Virus—A Comprehensive Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013;45(3):331–79.

13. Obando-Pacheco P, Justicia-Grande AJ, Rivero-Calle I, Rodríguez-Tenreiro C, Sly P, Ramilo O, et al. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasonality: A Global Overview. J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 11;217(9):1356–64.

SARS-CoV-2 PCR Test

Product Overview

Our high-sensitivity SARS-CoV-2 assays amplify viral RNA through the use of highly specific primer/probe sequences and thermal cycles, while the sample is continuously monitored by software-guided LEDs to quantify the abundance of the target genes.

Catalogue No.
P11031
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes COVID-19 with symptoms including coughing, loss of taste or small, fever, headaches and can lead to respiratory distress 1,2.  SARS-CoV-2 viral particles use spike protein to bind to its human cell surface receptor, ACE2, and gain entry into the cell with subsequent fusion with cell membrane 3.   The virus particle is uncoated, releasing the genomic RNA into the host cell.  The viral genomic RNA uses the host’s ‘machinery’, to produce more viral particles which are secreted from the infected cell 4.  As of the beginning of April 2022, over 21,400,000 people have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and over 187,000 have died in the UK alone with the Omicron BA.2 variant the most dominant in the UK accounting for over 93% of cases in England 5-7.

The SARS-CoV-2 PCR test targets the N, S and ORF1ab SARS-CoV-2 genes. The S gene, which codes for the Spike protein, gives the virus its ability to bind to human cells, and therefore its infectious nature while the N gene’s protein binds to and gives structure to the viral RNA. The ORF1-ab genes each encode polyproteins that go on to form a viral replication and transcription complex4.

Specifications

Infection
SARS-CoV-2 (ORF1ab, N and S genes)
Internal control
MS2 phage control
Limit of Detection
250 GCE/ml
Turn Around Time
Same day
*From sample arrival at the laboratory
Contents & Storage
Each SARS-CoV-2 PCR test kit contains:

Nasopharyngeal swab, a VTM tube
95kPa specimen transport bag
Return address labelled UN3373 mailing bag
Sample collection instructions

FAQ

How long does it take for me to get my result?
We guarantee a same day turnaround from when your sample is received in our laboratory.
How do I you know that my test result is accurate?
Our laboratory is an ISO 15189 accredited clinical laboratory. We adhere to strict internal quality assurance measures and are committed to providing a high-quality service, to consistently deliver clinically valid results.

1.     Stowe J, Tessier E, Zhao H, Guy R, Muller-Pebody B, Zambon M, et al. Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, and the impact of coinfection on disease severity: a test-negative design. Int J Epidemiol. 2021 May 3;50(4):1124–33.

2.     World Health Organization. Coronavirus [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 13]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus

3.     Jackson CB, Farzan M, Chen B, Choe H. Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Jan;23(1):3–20.

4.     V’kovski P, Kratzel A, Steiner S, Stalder H, Thiel V. Coronavirus biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 Mar;19(3):155–70.

5.     UK Health Security Agency. Cases in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/cases

6.     UK Health Security Agency. Deaths in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/deaths

7.     UK Health Security Agency. COVID-19 variants identified in the UK [Internet]. GOV.UK. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/covid-19-variants-identified-in-the-uk

SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test (Self-Testing)

Product Overview

Rapid testing for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigens for general screening and Fit-to-Fly testing. Digital Validation Report issued within 4 hours of successful online activation.

Catalogue No.
P11011
No. of kits
1
Digital Validation Report
No
Availability
In stock
Catalogue No.
P11201
No. of kits
1
Digital Validation Report
Yes
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes COVID-19 with symptoms including coughing, loss of taste or small, fever, headaches and can lead to respiratory distress 1,2.  SARS-CoV-2 viral particles use spike protein to bind to its human cell surface receptor, ACE2, and enter the cell with subsequent fusion with cell membrane 3.   The virus particle is uncoated, releasing the genomic RNA into the host cell.  The viral genomic RNA uses the host’s ‘machinery’, to produce more viral particles which are secreted from the infected cell 4.  As of the beginning of April 2022, over 21,400,000 people have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and over 187,000 have died in the UK alone with the Omicron BA.2 variant the most dominant in the UK accounting for over 93% of cases in England5-7.

The Lateral Flow Device provides rapid SARS-CoV-2 detection utilising specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific to detect the nucleocapsid antigens. The samples are obtained through anterior nasal swabs which are combined with the extraction solution. Results are visually read at 15-30 minutes. A red line would appear at the Control (C) line if the test had worked. A red line at position T indicates SARS-CoV-2 presence.

Specifications

Infection
SARS-CoV-2 (Nucleocapsid antigens)
Limit of Detection
1.6x102 TCID50/mL
Clinical Performance characteristics
Relative Sensitivity 97.1% Relative Specificity 99.5%
Turn Around Time
Receive results within 15-30 minutes
Time for Validation Report
< 4 hours after online activation (9am-9pm, 7 days a week)
Contents & Storage
1 Test Cassette
1 Extraction Buffer Tube
1 Disposable Swab
1 Waste Bag
Package insert

Store kits between 2 – 30°C
Use kits before expiration date printed on sealed test kit.
The test must remain in the sealed pouch until use.

1.      Stowe J, Tessier E, Zhao H, Guy R, Muller-Pebody B, Zambon M, et al. Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, and the impact of coinfection on disease severity: a test-negative design. Int J Epidemiol. 2021 May 3;50(4):1124–33.  

2.     World Health Organization. Coronavirus [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 13]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus

3.     Jackson CB, Farzan M, Chen B, Choe H. Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Jan;23(1):3–20.  

4.      V’kovski P, Kratzel A, Steiner S, Stalder H, Thiel V. Coronavirus biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 Mar;19(3):155–70.  

5.     UK Health Security Agency. Cases in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/cases

6.     UK Health Security Agency. Deaths in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/deaths

7.     UK Health Security Agency. COVID-19 variants identified in the UK [Internet]. GOV.UK. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/covid-19-variants-identified-in-the-uk

Supervised SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Rapid Test

Product Overview

Video supervised rapid testing for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigens for Fit-to-Fly testing. Booking link for easy customer scheduling with appointment availability 7-days a week. Digital Validation Report issued immediately following appointment.

Catalogue No.
P11311
No. of kits
1
Supervised Test
Yes
Digital Validation Report
Yes
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus that causes COVID-19 with symptoms including coughing, loss of taste or small, fever, headaches and can lead to respiratory distress 1,2.  SARS-CoV-2 viral particles use spike protein to bind to its human cell surface receptor, ACE2, and enter the cell with subsequent fusion with cell membrane 3.   The virus particle is uncoated, releasing the genomic RNA into the host cell.  The viral genomic RNA uses the host’s ‘machinery’, to produce more viral particles which are secreted from the infected cell 4.  As of the beginning of April 2022, over 21,400,000 people have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and over 187,000 have died in the UK alone with the Omicron BA.2 variant the most dominant in the UK accounting for over 93% of cases in England5-7.

The Lateral Flow Device provides rapid SARS-CoV-2 detection utilising specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific to detect the nucleocapsid antigens. The samples are obtained through anterior nasal swabs which are combined with the extraction solution. Results are visually read at 15-30 minutes. A red line would appear at the Control (C) line if the test had worked. A red line at position T indicates SARS-CoV-2 presence.

Specifications

Infection
SARS-CoV-2 (Nucleocapsid antigens)
Limit of Detection
1.6x102 TCID50/mL
Clinical Performance characteristics
Relative Sensitivity 97.1% Relative Specificity 99.5%
Turn Around Time
Receive results within 15-30 minutes of appointment
Time for Validation Report
15-30 mins after online appointment (9am-9pm, 7 days a week)
Contents & Storage
1 Test Cassette
1 Extraction Buffer Tube
1 Disposable Swab
1 Waste Bag
Package insert

Store kits between 2 – 30°C
Use kits before expiration date printed on sealed test kit.
The test must remain in the sealed pouch until use.

1.      Stowe J, Tessier E, Zhao H, Guy R, Muller-Pebody B, Zambon M, et al. Interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza, and the impact of coinfection on disease severity: a test-negative design. Int J Epidemiol. 2021 May 3;50(4):1124–33.  

2.     World Health Organization. Coronavirus [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 13]. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus

3.     Jackson CB, Farzan M, Chen B, Choe H. Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2022 Jan;23(1):3–20.  

4.      V’kovski P, Kratzel A, Steiner S, Stalder H, Thiel V. Coronavirus biology and replication: implications for SARS-CoV-2. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2021 Mar;19(3):155–70.  

5.     UK Health Security Agency. Cases in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/cases

6.     UK Health Security Agency. Deaths in the UK | Coronavirus in the UK [Internet]. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://coronavirus.data.gov.uk/details/deaths

7.     UK Health Security Agency. COVID-19 variants identified in the UK [Internet]. GOV.UK. [cited 2022 Apr 14]. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/covid-19-variants-identified-in-the-uk

Microbiome Wellness Panels

Product Overview

PeploBio’s Microbiome Wellness Panels are novel qPCR multiplex assays that target a wide range of microbes. Indicative of each area of interest, our assays have been individually developed to incorporate the latest research from peer-reviewed journals.

Results are ready in a short turnaround time, within 1-2 days from sample arrival, and are ‘ready to use’ with no need for further data processing or bioinformatics.  Tips on your improving your gut health are provided in the form of a Personalised Test Indicators Report as well as absolute and relative microbe quantification values.

In addition to our established panels, PeploBio’s in-house expertise in assay development allows bespoke solutions to be offered, tailored to your requirement. Contact us for a discussion about custom made solutions.

Panel
Mental Health
Catalogue No.
M32161
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Panel
Metabolism
Catalogue No.
M32162
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Panel
Type 2 Diabetes
Catalogue No.
M32163
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Panel
Immunity
Catalogue No.
M32164
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

The Gut Microbiome is a diverse composition of microbial species found in the intestinal tract.  It has been established that the gut microbiome is interacting with its host via the gut-brain axis through interactions with immune cells, enteroendocrine cells and through the production of microbe-derived metabolites1.  As a key regulator within the gut-brain axis, the microbiome composition is thought to regulate cognitive function through the production of neurotransmitters and their precursors, essential proteins and metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) and through modulating the immune signalling and cytokine production 2–4. This influences the hosts response and behaviour to stimuli.  Scientific peer-reviewed correlation studies have implicated the gut microbiome in metabolic and inflammatory diseases including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, anxiety, depression, metabolism and appetite, type 2 diabetes and immunity5–10 .  However, the gut microbiome is a dynamic entity and the composition can be altered using probiotics, diet, or supplementation 11–13.  PeploBio offer proprietary solutions to analyse key bacterium involved in different pathologies and wellness.

Mental Health: A growing body of research has demonstrated that biochemical signalling through the gut-brain axis is thought to influence cognitive functioning and mood1,14. Preclinical models have shown that  disturbances in the gut microbiota has led to displaying of anxiety and depressive-like behaviours and these are normalised after probiotic administration15,16.  Clinical studies have shown a difference in composition of the gut microbiome in of those suffering with either anxiety or depression, in comparison to healthy controls17,18. A number of bacterial taxa, for each condition, have been identified which may characterise the conditions and inform future diagnosis and treatment7.  With this knowledge PeploBio have developed a mental health microbiome wellness panel to target key bacteria associated with anxiety or depression.  

Metabolism: Normal eating behaviours are tightly regulated through several mechanisms involving the central nervous system and the gut.  These systems are influenced by other signalling molecules such as gut peptides, hormones and neuronal signalling.  The gut microbiome can influence this by producing SCFAs which stimulate hormone secretion (GLP1 & peptide YY) and decrease secretion of ghrelin19–21.  Ghrelin is a gastric hormone important in promoting hunger and craving responses22. It is thought that disruption of microbe-derived SCFA, and secondary bile acid metabolism, can promote insulin resistance and an increase in sensations of hunger23,24.  Pre-clinical studies have also demonstrated that the presence of certain microbes can negatively alter host preference for food25.

Type 2 Diabetes: is a chronic metabolic disorder characterised by a low level of insulin, its receptors and/or insulin resistance.  It has been reported that people with Type 2 Diabetes have differential gut microbiota in comparison to healthy controls26,27.  It is thought that changes in the gut microbiome composition increase circulating LPS, pro-inflammatory cytokines and endotoxic compounds derived from the gut microbiome which lead to disruption in lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis 28,29.  

Immunity: The gut microbiome has been shown to have many positive influences on health.  This is achieved by preventing invasion of pathogenic species and through the production of metabolites which strengthen the mucosal barrier, preventing leaky gut and supporting the integrity of the blood brain barrier30–33. Microbiome metabolites such as SCFAs are thought to modulate immune activation and have anti-inflammatory properties34.

Specifications

Turn Around Time
1-2 days
*From sample arrival at the laboratory
Microbiome test report
Includes:
1. Personalised Test Indicators Report with tips on improving your gut health
2. Absolute and relative quantification values of microbes
No further data processing required

FAQ

How will the microbiome test results be displayed?
PeploBio’s novel microbiome tests provide raw quantification data of individual microbes, as well as interpreted results in the form of a Personalised Test Indicators Report- no further data processing required.  The report uses sliding scales to highlight low/moderate/high risk to turn complex lab results into meaningful insights and tips on improving your gut health.  The presentation of the results report can be tailored to your requirements.
How long does it take for me to get my result?
We guarantee a 1-2 day turnaround from when your sample is received in our laboratory.
How do I you know that my test result is accurate?
Our laboratory is an ISO 15189 accredited clinical laboratory. We adhere to strict internal quality assurance measures and are committed to providing a high-quality service, to consistently deliver clinically valid results.
Contents & Storage
Each test kit contains:

Specimen collection container
95kPa specimen transport bag
Return address labelled UN3373 mailing bag
Sample collection instructions

1. Foster JA, Neufeld KAM. Gut–brain axis: how the microbiome influences anxiety and depression. Trends Neurosci. 2013 May 1;36(5):305–12.

2. Bercik P, Verdu EF, Foster JA, Macri J, Potter M, Huang X, et al. Chronic Gastrointestinal Inflammation Induces Anxiety-Like Behavior and Alters Central Nervous System Biochemistry in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2010 Dec 1;139(6):2102-2112.e1.

3. O’Sullivan E, Barrett E, Grenham S, Fitzgerald P, Stanton C, Ross R, et al. BDNF expression in the hippocampus of maternally separated rats: does Bifidobacterium breve 6330 alter BDNF levels? Benef Microbes. 2011 Sep;2(3):199–207.

4. Parada Venegas D, De la Fuente MK, Landskron G, González MJ, Quera R, Dijkstra G, et al. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs)-Mediated Gut Epithelial and Immune Regulation and Its Relevance for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. Front Immunol [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2022 Apr 28];10. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00277

5. Gao R, Gao Z, Huang L, Qin H. Gut microbiota and colorectal cancer. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2017;36(5):757–69.

6. Nishida A, Inoue R, Inatomi O, Bamba S, Naito Y, Andoh A. Gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2018 Feb 1;11(1):1–10.

7. Simpson CA, Diaz-Arteche C, Eliby D, Schwartz OS, Simmons JG, Cowan CSM. The gut microbiota in anxiety and depression – A systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2021 Feb 1;83:101943.

8. Gupta A, Osadchiy V, Mayer EA. Brain–gut–microbiome interactions in obesity and food addiction. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020 Nov;17(11):655–72.

9. Ballan R, Saad SMI. Characteristics of the Gut Microbiota and Potential Effects of Probiotic Supplements in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. Foods. 2021 Oct 21;10(11):2528.

10. Gomaa EZ. Human gut microbiota/microbiome in health and diseases: a review. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2020 Dec 1;113(12):2019–40.

11. Liu RT, Walsh RFL, Sheehan AE. Prebiotics and probiotics for depression and anxiety: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2019 Jul;102:13–23.

12. Eswaran S, Chey WD, Jackson K, Pillai S, Chey SW, Han-Markey T. A Diet Low in Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, and Monosaccharides and Polyols Improves Quality of Life and Reduces Activity Impairment in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Diarrhea. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Dec 1;15(12):1890-1899.e3.

13. Farhangi MA, Javid AZ, Sarmadi B, Karimi P, Dehghan P. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of resistant dextrin, as functional food, in women with type 2 diabetes: Targeting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system. Clin Nutr Edinb Scotl. 2018 Aug;37(4):1216–23.

14. Peirce JM, Alviña K. The role of inflammation and the gut microbiome in depression and anxiety. J Neurosci Res. 2019;97(10):1223–41.

15. Crumeyrolle-Arias M, Jaglin M, Bruneau A, Vancassel S, Cardona A, Daugé V, et al. Absence of the gut microbiota enhances anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine response to acute stress in rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 Apr 1;42:207–17.

16. Bravo JA, Forsythe P, Chew MV, Escaravage E, Savignac HM, Dinan TG, et al. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Sep 20;108(38):16050–5.

17. Huang TT, Lai JB, Du YL, Xu Y, Ruan LM, Hu SH. Current Understanding of Gut Microbiota in Mood Disorders: An Update of Human Studies. Front Genet. 2019 Feb 19;10:98.

18.  Sanada K, Nakajima S, Kurokawa S, Barceló-Soler A, Ikuse D, Hirata A, et al. Gut microbiota and major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2020 Apr 1;266:1–13.

19. Tolhurst G, Heffron H, Lam YS, Parker HE, Habib AM, Diakogiannaki E, et al. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Stimulate Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secretion via the G-Protein–Coupled Receptor FFAR2. Diabetes. 2012 Feb;61(2):364–71.

20. Cani PD, Lecourt E, Dewulf EM, Sohet FM, Pachikian BD, Naslain D, et al. Gut microbiota fermentation of prebiotics increases satietogenic and incretin gut peptide production with consequences for appetite sensation and glucose response after a meal. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov 1;90(5):1236–43.

21. Parnell JA, Reimer RA. Weight loss during oligofructose supplementation is associated with decreased ghrelin and increased peptide YY in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;89(6):1751–9.

22. Nakazato M, Murakami N, Date Y, Kojima M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K, et al. A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding. Nature. 2001 Jan;409(6817):194–8.

23. Jiao N, Baker SS, Nugent CA, Tsompana M, Cai L, Wang Y, et al. Gut microbiome may contribute to insulin resistance and systemic inflammation in obese rodents: a meta-analysis. Physiol Genomics. 2018 Apr;50(4):244–54.

24. Pathak P, Xie C, Nichols RG, Ferrell JM, Boehme S, Krausz KW, et al. Intestine farnesoid X receptor agonist and the gut microbiota activate G-protein bile acid receptor-1 signaling to improve metabolism. Hepatol Baltim Md. 2018 Oct;68(4):1574–88.

25. Leitão-Gonçalves R, Carvalho-Santos Z, Francisco AP, Fioreze GT, Anjos M, Baltazar C, et al. Commensal bacteria and essential amino acids control food choice behavior and reproduction. PLoS Biol. 2017 Apr 25;15(4):e2000862.

26. Larsen N, Vogensen FK, van den Berg FWJ, Nielsen DS, Andreasen AS, Pedersen BK, et al. Gut Microbiota in Human Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Differs from Non-Diabetic Adults. PLoS ONE. 2010 Feb 5;5(2):e9085.

27. Qin J, Li Y, Cai Z, Li S, Zhu J, Zhang F, et al. A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2012 Oct;490(7418):55–60.

28. Harte AL, Varma MC, Tripathi G, McGee KC, Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, et al. High Fat Intake Leads to Acute Postprandial Exposure to Circulating Endotoxin in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects. Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb;35(2):375–82.

29.  Zhao L, Zhang F, Ding X, Wu G, Lam YY, Wang X, et al. Gut bacteria selectively promoted by dietary fibers alleviate type 2 diabetes. Science. 2018 Mar 9;359(6380):1151–6.

30. Karczewski J, Troost FJ, Konings I, Dekker J, Kleerebezem M, Brummer RJM, et al. Regulation of human epithelial tight junction proteins by Lactobacillus plantarum in vivo and protective effects on the epithelial barrier. Am J Physiol-Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010 Jun;298(6):G851–9.

31. Cleusix V, Lacroix C, Vollenweider S, Duboux M, Le Blay G. Inhibitory activity spectrum of reuterin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri against intestinal bacteria. BMC Microbiol. 2007 Nov 12;7:101.

32. Usuda H, Okamoto T, Wada K. Leaky Gut: Effect of Dietary Fiber and Fats on Microbiome and Intestinal Barrier. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jul 16;22(14):7613.

33. Logsdon AF, Erickson MA, Rhea EM, Salameh TS, Banks WA. Gut reactions: How the blood–brain barrier connects the microbiome and the brain. Exp Biol Med. 2018 Jan;243(2):159–65.

34. Morrison DJ, Preston T. Formation of short chain fatty acids by the gut microbiota and their impact on human metabolism. Gut Microbes. 2016 Mar 10;7(3):189–200.

Essential 2
STI panel

Product Overview

The Essential 2 test kit is our sexual health diagnostic panel that can identify and differentiate between Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea infections; two different bacterial infections which are known to be the most common sexual transmitted infections (STI).  Using real-time PCR technology, the sample is qualitatively analysed to detect bacterial genomic material present within the sample using highly specific primer/probe sequences and thermal cycling, while the sample is continuously monitored by software-guided LEDs to quantify the abundance of the target genes.

Catalogue No.
P22021
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

Chlamydia is a common STI which is caused by bacterial infection, Chlamydia trachomatis.  Many people will not show any signs or symptoms.  However, if left un-treated it can cause long term consequences including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility.   Chlamydia trachomatis, is a gram-negative bacterium and intracellular parasite1. It starts out in a spore-like form called an elementary body and upon entering a host cell it transforms into a new form called a reticulate body. The bacteria then replicates until the cell ruptures, releasing the new elementary bodies into the environment to seek out new host cells and start the process all over again2. Chlamydia is transmitted through vaginal discharge or semen and genital contact as well as unprotected virginal, oral or anal sex.  Despite a few cases of antibiotic resistance there are no examples of Chlamydia strains showing natural or stable antibiotic resistance3.

Gonorrhoea is the second most commonly reported bacterial STI caused by the gram-negative diplococci bacteria Neisseria Gonorrhoea4,5 .  This bacterium is transmitted during sexual contact including oral, anal and vaginal intercourse. The bacterium’s surface is coated with hair-like structures called pili which allow it to move, adhere to surfaces and exchange DNA6. It is able to evade the immune system by altering the antigens of its cellular surface (antigenic variation), as well as activating/deactivating certain genes (phase variation) 7,8.  Gonorrhea has developed resistance to nearly all varieties of antibiotics used to treat it and half of all infections each year are resistant to at least one antibiotic4.

Specifications

Infection(s)
Chlamydia trachomatis
(16S rRNA gene the cryptic plasmid multi-copy sequence)
Neisseria gonorrhoea
(16S rRNA and porA preudogene specific for N. gonorrhoeae)
Limit of detection
0.075 cp/μl, Chlamydia trachomatis
0.109 cp/µl, Neisseria gonorrhoea
Turn Around Time
Same day
*From sample arrival at the laboratory
Contents & Storage
Each Essential 2 test kit contains:

Genital swab, endocervical swab, urine or urethral swab.
95kPa specimen transport bag
Return address labelled UN3373 mailing bag
Sample collection instructions

FAQ

Why should I buy an Essential 2 test rather than individual Screenings?
The Essential 2 is a cost effective and fast way to simultaneously identify and differentiate between two targets and is substantially cheaper than buying each test separately.
How long does it take for me to get my result?
We guarantee a same day turnaround from when your sample is received in our laboratory.
How do I you know that my test result is accurate?
Our laboratory is an ISO 15189 accredited clinical laboratory. We adhere to strict internal quality assurance measures and are committed to providing a high-quality service, to consistently deliver clinically valid results.

1. Elwell C, Mirrashidi K, Engel J. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2016 Jun;14(6):385-400.

2. Nunes A, Gomes JP. Evolution, phylogeny, and molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2014 Apr 1;23:49-64.

3. Sandoz KM, Rockey DD. Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydiae. Future microbiology. 2010 Sep;5(9):1427-42.

4. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021. Combating the Threat of Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea. [online] Available at: <https://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/arg/carb.htm> [Accessed 22 April 2022].

5. Saini A, Eichenseer C, Meyers A, Frousiakis P. Septic gonococcal arthritis in a pediatric patient: Rare case report. International Journal of Surgery Case Reports. 2021 Mar 1;80:105701.

6. Eriksson J, Eriksson OS, Maudsdotter L, Palm O, Engman J, Sarkissian T, Aro H, Wallin M, Jonsson AB. Characterization of motility and piliation in pathogenic Neisseria. BMC microbiology. 2015 Dec;15(1):1-3.

7. Voter AF, Callaghan MM, Tippana R, Myong S, Dillard JP, Keck JL. Antigenic Variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Occurs Independently of RecQ-Mediated Unwinding of the pilE G Quadruplex. J Bacteriol. 2020 Jan 15;202(3):e00607-19. doi: 10.1128/JB.00607-19. PMID: 31740492; PMCID: PMC6964745.

8. Hill SA, Masters TL, Wachter J. Gonorrhea-an evolving disease of the new millennium. Microbial cell. 2016 Sep 5;3(9):371.

Advanced 8
STI Panel

GeneProof, Diasorin, Bio-Rad

Product Overview

Advanced 8 STI Panel is our sexual health diagnostic panel that can identify and differentiate between 8 different bacterial and viral infections.

Catalogue No.
P22081
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

Using a combination of molecular techniques and serological assays, the samples are analysed to differentiate between infections. Swab or urine samples are analysed through a process known as real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During qPCR any viral or bacterial RNA/DNA present within the sample is amplified using highly specific primer/probe sequences and thermal cycling, while the sample is continuously monitored by software-guided LEDs to quantify the abundance of the target genes. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is used to test serum from blood samples and recognizes the presence of specific antibodies and antigens.

Chlamydia is a common STD caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, which is transmitted through sexual contact with an infected individual1. While infection is often asymptomatic, it can lead to complications such as infertility or ectopic pregnancy if left untreated2.

Neisseria gonorrhea is transmitted during sexual contact, where it infects any mucous membranes that were exposed to the bacteria. Whether the infection causes a symptomatic response is dependent on the site of infection. Urethral infections often cause painful urination or pustular discharge. However rectal, oral and conjunctivae infections are often asymptomatic and are only diagnosed through screening tests3.

Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that is transmitted through sexual contact with an individual that carries the parasite 4. Symptoms for internal genitals include discharge and localized pain, though about 50% of cases are asymptomatic. If left untreated, complications such as infertility and greater risk of premature labor and miscarriage can occur. While those with external genitals are often asymptomatic carriers, cases exhibiting painful urination and pustular discharge have been reported 5.

Mycoplasma genitalium is a species of bacteria that is transmitted during sexual contact where it adheres to the epithelial cells of its new host. It has been shown to cause acute and chronic urethritis in external genitals and can cause cervicitis and pelvic inflammation 6.

Syphilis is caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum which is transmitted through direct contact with an active lesion or from a pregnant person to child through the placenta 7. In the case of the former, bacteria from the infected person can penetrate mucous membranes, forming an ulcer at the site of contact within 90 days of infection. Syphilis infection through the placenta can introduce serious risk of miscarriage or stillbirth 8.

Both the Hepatitis B and C Viruses (HBV and HCV) attack liver cells upon infection, often leading to cirrhosis over time. HBV has been linked to an increased risk of liver cancer, but the most common symptoms are jaundice, fatigue and vomiting. Both viruses are commonly transmitted from mother to child during birth but can also be transmitted through contact with infected blood during some kinds of sexual contact or through sharing of needles/syringes 9,10.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is commonly transmitted during sexual contact between mucosal surfaces, or through introduction into the bloodstream via needles/syringes 11. An individual’s symptomatic response to infection depends on the stage of infection. Flu-like symptoms can follow soon after the initial infection, but asymptomatic presentations are not uncommon. Over time, as the immune system is weakened, weight loss, fevers and coughs can develop 12.

Specifications

Infection(s)
Chlamydia trachomatis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Trichomonas vaginalis
Mycoplasma genitalium
HIV-1 / HIV- 2 (p24 antigen and HIV 1/2 antibodies)
Treponema pallidum
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Limit of detection
0.177 cp/μl, Chlamydia trachomatis
0.22 cp/μl, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
0.25 cp/μl, Trichomonas vaginalis
1.129 cp/μl, Mycoplasma genitalium
13.6 pg/ml, HIV
0.53 mlU/ml IgM and 0.11 mlU/ml IgG Treponema pallidum
Turn Around Time
Next day
*From sample arrival at the laboratory

FAQ

Why should I buy Advanced 8 test rather than individual Screenings?
The Advanced 8 Panel is a cost effective and fast way to simultaneously differentiate between eight viral and bacterial targets and is substantially cheaper than buying each test separately.
How long does it take for me to get my result?
We guarantee a same day turnaround from when your sample is received in our laboratory.
How do I you know that my test result is accurate?
Our laboratory is an ISO 15189 accredited clinical laboratory. We adhere to strict internal quality assurance measures and are committed to providing a high-quality service, to consistently deliver clinically valid results.
Contents & Storage
Each Advanced 8 Panel test kit contains:

Swab or urine collection container
Blood collection device
95kPa specimen transport bag
Return address labelled UN3373 mailing bag
Sample collection instructions  

1. Elwell C, Mirrashidi K, Engel J. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2016 Jun;14(6):385-400.

2. Schoeman SA, Stewart CM, Booth RA, Smith SD, Wilcox MH, Wilson JD. Assessment of best single sample for finding chlamydia in women with and without symptoms: a diagnostic test study. Bmj. 2012 Dec 12;345.

3. Kirkcaldy RD, Weston E, Segurado AC, Hughes G. Epidemiology of gonorrhoea: a global perspective. Sexual health. 2019 Sep 11;16(5):401-11.

4. Kissinger P. Trichomonas vaginalis: a review of epidemiologic, clinical and treatment issues. BMC infectious diseases. 2015 Dec;15(1):1-8.

5. Bouchemal K, Bories C, Loiseau PM. Strategies for prevention and treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis infections. Clinical microbiology reviews. 2017 Jul;30(3):811-25.

6. Gnanadurai R, Fifer H. Mycoplasma genitalium: a review. Microbiology. 2020 Jan 1;166(1):21-9.

7. Harmon ED, Robertson EW. Syphilis: A growing concern. The Nurse Practitioner. 2019 Aug 1;44(8):21-8.

8. Tsai S, Sun MY, Kuller JA, Rhee EH, Dotters-Katz S. Syphilis in pregnancy. Obstetrical & gynecological survey. 2019 Sep 1;74(9):557-64.

9. WHO (2022) Hepatitis B [cited 22 April 2022]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-b

10. WHO (2022) Hepatitis C [cited 22 April 2022]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-c

17. Shaw GM, Hunter E. HIV transmission. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine. 2012 Nov 1;2(11):a006965.

18. WHO (2022) HIV/AIDS [cited 22 April 2022]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hiv-aids

Complete 12
STI Panel

GeneProof, Diasorin, Bio-Rad

Product Overview

The Complete 12 is our all-encompassing sexual health diagnostic panel that can identify and differentiate between 12 different bacterial and viral infections.

Catalogue No.
P22012
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

Using a combination of molecular techniques and serological assays, the samples are analysed to differentiate between infections. Swab or urine samples are analysed through a process known as real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During qPCR any viral or bacterial RNA/DNA present within the sample is amplified using highly specific primer/probe sequences and thermal cycling, while the sample is continuously monitored by software-guided LEDs to quantify the abundance of the target genes. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is used to test serum from blood samples and recognizes the presence of specific antibodies and antigens.

Chlamydia is a common STD caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, which is transmitted through sexual contact with an infected individual1. While infection is often asymptomatic, it can lead to complications such as infertility or ectopic pregnancy if left untreated2.

Neisseria gonorrhea is transmitted during sexual contact, where it infects any mucous membranes that were exposed to the bacteria. Whether the infection causes a symptomatic response is dependent on the site of infection. Urethral infections often cause painful urination or pustular discharge. However rectal, oral and conjunctivae infections are often asymptomatic and are only diagnosed through screening tests3.

Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that is transmitted through sexual contact with an individual that carries the parasite 4. Symptoms for internal genitals include discharge and localized pain, though about 50% of cases are asymptomatic. If left untreated, complications such as infertility and greater risk of premature labor and miscarriage can occur. While those with external genitals are often asymptomatic carriers, cases exhibiting painful urination and pustular discharge have been reported 5.

Mycoplasma genitalium is a species of bacteria that is transmitted during sexual contact where it adheres to the epithelial cells of its new host. It has been shown to cause acute and chronic urethritis in external genitals and can cause cervicitis and pelvic inflammation 6.

Both Ureaplasma parvum and urealyticum cause STDs.  Ureaplasma parvum has been linked to an increase in the rates of premature births coinciding with bronchopulmonary disease in the infant 7. In addition, Ureaplasma urealyticum infections are associated with urethritis and pelvic inflammatory disease 8,9. These bacteria are transmitted through sexual contact as well as from an infected pregnant person to child during pregnancy9.

Bacterial vaginosis is caused by the overgrowth of Gardnerella vaginalis, triggered by an imbalance of the bacterial diversity 10. The main cause of this imbalance is sexual contact, as G. Vaginalis can be spread among individuals, altering the natural balance of the bacteria within vagina. The symptoms of Bacterial vaginosis include vaginal odour and mild itching 11. Bacterial vaginosis has also been linked to pregnancy complications such as premature birth or miscarriage 10.

Syphilis is caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum which is transmitted through direct contact with an active lesion or from a pregnant person to child through the placenta 12. In the case of the former, bacteria from the infected person can penetrate mucous membranes, forming an ulcer at the site of contact within 90 days of infection. Syphilis infection through the placenta can introduce serious risk of miscarriage or stillbirth 13.

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) 1 and 2 are both lifelong, but primarily asymptomatic viral infections that can cause recurring blisters and sores around the site of infection. HSV-1 is transmitted through oral-oral contact with an individual, whereas HSV-2 is transmitted through sexual contact 14.

Both the Hepatitis B and C Viruses (HBV and HCV) attack liver cells upon infection, often leading to cirrhosis over time. HBV has been linked to an increased risk of liver cancer, but the most common symptoms are jaundice, fatigue and vomiting. Both viruses are commonly transmitted from mother to child during birth but can also be transmitted through contact with infected blood during some kinds of sexual contact or through sharing of needles/syringes 15,16.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is commonly transmitted during sexual contact between mucosal surfaces, or through introduction into the bloodstream via needles/syringes 11. An individual’s symptomatic response to infection depends on the stage of infection. Flu-like symptoms can follow soon after the initial infection, but asymptomatic presentations are not uncommon. Over time, as the immune system is weakened, weight loss, fevers and coughs can develop 12.

Specifications

Infection(s)
Chlamydia trachomatis
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Trichomonas vaginalis
Mycoplasma genitalium
HSV-1
HSV-II
Ureaplasma parvum/urealyticum
Gardnerella vaginalis
HIV-1 / HIV- 2 (p24 antigen and HIV 1/2 antibodies)
Treponema pallidum
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Limit of detection
0.075 cp/μl, Chlamydia trachomatis
0.109 cp/μl, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
0.25 cp/μl, Trichomonas vaginalis
1.129 cp/μl, Mycoplasma genitalium
122.124 cp/ml, HSV-I
194.49 cp/ml, HSV-II
0.687 cp/μl, Ureaplasma parvum/urealyticum
0.82 cp/µl, Gardnerella vaginalis
Turn Around Time
Next day
*From sample arrival at the laboratory
Contents & Storage
Each Complete 12 Panel test kit contains:

Genital swab, endocervical swab, urine or urethral swab, clotted blood or serum
95kPa specimen transport bag
Return address labelled UN3373 mailing bag
Sample collection instructions

FAQ

Why should I buy Complete 12 test rather than individual Screenings?
The Complete 12 is a cost effective and fast way to simultaneously differentiate between twelve viral and bacterial targets and is substantially cheaper than buying each test separately.
How long does it take for me to get my result?
We guarantee a same day turnaround from when your sample is received in our laboratory.
How do I you know that my test result is accurate?
Our laboratory is an ISO 15189 accredited clinical laboratory. We adhere to strict internal quality assurance measures and are committed to providing a high-quality service, to consistently deliver clinically valid results.

1. Elwell C, Mirrashidi K, Engel J. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2016 Jun;14(6):385-400.

2. Schoeman SA, Stewart CM, Booth RA, Smith SD, Wilcox MH, Wilson JD. Assessment of best single sample for finding chlamydia in women with and without symptoms: a diagnostic test study. Bmj. 2012 Dec 12;345.

3. Kirkcaldy RD, Weston E, Segurado AC, Hughes G. Epidemiology of gonorrhoea: a global perspective. Sexual health. 2019 Sep 11;16(5):401-11.

4. Kissinger P. Trichomonas vaginalis: a review of epidemiologic, clinical and treatment issues. BMC infectious diseases. 2015 Dec;15(1):1-8.

5. Bouchemal K, Bories C, Loiseau PM. Strategies for prevention and treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis infections. Clinical microbiology reviews. 2017 Jul;30(3):811-25.

6. Gnanadurai R, Fifer H. Mycoplasma genitalium: a review. Microbiology. 2020 Jan 1;166(1):21-9.

7. Donders GG, Ruban K, Bellen G, Petricevic L. Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma infection in pregnancy: to screen or not to screen. Journal of perinatal medicine. 2017 Jul 1;45(5):505-15.

8. Marovt M, Keše D, Kotar T, Kmet N, Miljković J, Šoba B, Matičič M. Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum detected with the same frequency among women with and without symptoms of urogenital tract infection. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. 2015 Jun;34(6):1237-45.

9. Peretz A, Tameri O, Azrad M, Barak S, Perlitz Y, Dahoud WA, Ben-Ami M, Kushnir A. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma carriage in pregnant women: the prevalence of transmission from mother to newborn. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2020 Dec;20(1):1-7.

10. Kairys N, Garg M. Gardnerella. [Updated 2021 Aug 7]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459350/?msclkid=a2ffc99dc21611ecb8038870d304919

11. Schwebke JR, Muzny CA, Josey WE. Role of Gardnerella vaginalis in the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis: a conceptual model. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2014 Aug 1;210(3):338-43.

12. Harmon ED, Robertson EW. Syphilis: A growing concern. The Nurse Practitioner. 2019 Aug 1;44(8):21-8.

13. Tsai S, Sun MY, Kuller JA, Rhee EH, Dotters-Katz S. Syphilis in pregnancy. Obstetrical & gynecological survey. 2019 Sep 1;74(9):557-64.

14. WHO (2022) Herpes simplex virus [cited 21 April 2022]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/herpes-simplex-virus

15. WHO (2022) Hepatitis B [cited 22 April 2022]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-b

16. WHO (2022) Hepatitis C [cited 22 April 2022]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-c

17. Shaw GM, Hunter E. HIV transmission. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine. 2012 Nov 1;2(11):a006965.

18. WHO (2022) HIV/AIDS [cited 22 April 2022]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hiv-aid

Neisseria gonorrhoea

Product Overview

The Gonorrhoea test kit is our sexual health diagnostic panel that can identify Gonorrhoea infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoea. Using real-time PCR technology, the sample is qualitatively analysed to detect bacterial genomic material present within the sample using highly specific primer/probe sequences and thermal cycling, while the sample is continuously monitored by software-guided LEDs to quantify the abundance of the target genes.

Catalogue No.
P21022
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

Gonorrhoea is the second most commonly reported bacterial STI caused by the gram-negative diplococci bacteria Neisseria Gonorrhoea1,2 .  This bacterium is transmitted during sexual contact including oral, anal and vaginal intercourse. The bacterium’s surface is coated with hair-like structures called pili which allow it to move, adhere to surfaces and exchange DNA3. It is able to evade the immune system by altering the antigens of its cellular surface (antigenic variation), as well as activating/deactivating certain genes (phase variation) 4,5.  Gonorrhea has developed resistance to nearly all varieties of antibiotics used to treat it and half of all infections each year are resistant to at least one antibiotic4.

Specifications

Infection
Neisseria gonorrhoea
(16S rRNA and porA preudogene specific for N. gonorrhoeae)
Limit of detection
0.109 cp/µl, Neisseria gonorrhoea
Turn Around Time
Same day
*From sample arrival at the laboratory
Contents & Storage
Each Gonorrhoea test kit contains:

Genital swab, endocervical swab, urine or urethral swab.
95kPa specimen transport bag
Return address labelled UN3373 mailing bag
Sample collection instructions

FAQ

How long does it take for me to get my result?
We guarantee a same day turnaround from when your sample is received in our laboratory.
How do I you know that my test result is accurate?
Our laboratory is an ISO 15189 accredited clinical laboratory. We adhere to strict internal quality assurance measures and are committed to providing a high-quality service, to consistently deliver clinically valid results.

1. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021. Combating the Threat of Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea. [online] Available at: <https://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/arg/carb.htm> [Accessed 22 April 2022].

2. Saini A, Eichenseer C, Meyers A, Frousiakis P. Septic gonococcal arthritis in a pediatric patient: Rare case report. International Journal of Surgery Case Reports. 2021 Mar 1;80:105701.

3. Eriksson J, Eriksson OS, Maudsdotter L, Palm O, Engman J, Sarkissian T, Aro H, Wallin M, Jonsson AB. Characterization of motility and piliation in pathogenic Neisseria. BMC microbiology. 2015 Dec;15(1):1-3.

4. Voter AF, Callaghan MM, Tippana R, Myong S, Dillard JP, Keck JL. Antigenic variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae occurs independently of RecQ-mediated unwinding of the pilE G quadruplex. Journal of bacteriology. 2020 Jan 15;202(3):e00607-19.

5. Hill SA, Masters TL, Wachter J. Gonorrhea-an evolving disease of the new millennium. Microbial cell. 2016 Sep 5;3(9):371.

Chlamydia trachomatis

Product Overview

The Chlamydia test kit is our sexual health diagnostic panel that can identify Chlamydia infections caused byChlamydia trachomatis. Using real-time PCR technology, the sample is qualitatively analysed to detect bacterial genomic material present within the sample using highly specific primer/probe sequences and thermal cycling, while the sample is continuously monitored by software-guided LEDs to quantify the abundance of the target genes.

Catalogue No.
P21021
No. of kits
1
Availability
In stock
Pricing available on request

Chlamydia is a common STI which is caused by bacterial infection, Chlamydia trachomatis.  Many people will not show any signs or symptoms.  However, if left un-treated it can cause long term consequences including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility.  Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram-negative bacterium and intracellular parasite1. It starts out in a spore-like form called an elementary body and upon entering a host cell it transforms into a new form called a reticulate body. The bacteria then replicates until the cell ruptures, releasing the new elementary bodies into the environment to seek out new host cells and start the process all over again2. Chlamydia is transmitted through vaginal discharge or semen and genital contact as well as unprotected virginal, oral or anal sex.  Despite a few cases of antibiotic resistance there are no examples of Chlamydia strains showing natural or stable antibiotic resistance3.

Specifications

Infection
Chlamydia trachomatis
(16S rRNA gene the cryptic plasmid multi-copy sequence)
Limit of detection
0.075 cp/μl, Chlamydia trachomatis
Turn Around Time
Same day
*From sample arrival at the laboratory
Contents & Storage
Each Chlamydia test kit contains:

Genital swab, endocervical swab, urine or urethral swab.
95kPa specimen transport bag
Return address labelled UN3373 mailing bag
Sample collection instructions

FAQ

How long does it take for me to get my result?
We guarantee a same day turnaround from when your sample is received in our laboratory.
How do I you know that my test result is accurate?
Our laboratory is an ISO 15189 accredited clinical laboratory. We adhere to strict internal quality assurance measures and are committed to providing a high-quality service, to consistently deliver clinically valid results.

1. Elwell C, Mirrashidi K, Engel J. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2016 Jun;14(6):385-400.

2. Nunes A, Gomes JP. Evolution, phylogeny, and molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2014 Apr 1;23:49-64.

3. Sandoz KM, Rockey DD. Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydiae. Future microbiology. 2010 Sep;5(9):1427-42.

4. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. 2021. Combating the Threat of Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea. [online] Available at: <https://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/arg/carb.htm> [Accessed 22 April 2022].

5. Saini A, Eichenseer C, Meyers A, Frousiakis P. Septic gonococcal arthritis in a pediatric patient: Rare case report. International Journal of Surgery Case Reports. 2021 Mar 1;80:105701.

6. Eriksson J, Eriksson OS, Maudsdotter L, Palm O, Engman J, Sarkissian T, Aro H, Wallin M, Jonsson AB. Characterization of motility and piliation in pathogenic Neisseria. BMC microbiology. 2015 Dec;15(1):1-3.

7. Voter AF, Callaghan MM, Tippana R, Myong S, Dillard JP, Keck JL. Antigenic Variation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae Occurs Independently of RecQ-Mediated Unwinding of the pilE G Quadruplex. J Bacteriol. 2020 Jan 15;202(3):e00607-19. doi: 10.1128/JB.00607-19. PMID: 31740492; PMCID: PMC6964745.

8. Hill SA, Masters TL, Wachter J. Gonorrhea-an evolving disease of the new millennium. Microbial cell. 2016 Sep 5;3(9):371.

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Let's discuss how we can help you push boundaries in your field.
Charlie Worsley
Head of business development